Paula’s family lived in Paris France and her family had difficulty making a living. Her father was a furrier, had a home industrial fur workshop in an apartment zoned for industrial use. The fur chemicals were extremely poisonous. The family heated the apartment in winter with a coke even, which was very polluting. Ventilation n these apartments was very poor. The entire family was often unwell with non specific ailments. Paula’s parents had been poor in infancy and both had stunted physical growth and crooked bones in their lower bodies due to the effects of Rickets. Crooked lower bones [including pelvic bones] can complicate normal births.
Remember that Paula was born not breathing, was suctioned [swallowed meconium] , was resuscitated [exposed to hyperopia] and even transfused before recovering completely normally. Except for her surprise discovery of baseline hypoventilation at rest in health. And occasional difficulty, when exposed to poor breathing conditions either from upper respiratory obstruction and/or poor quality indoor air.
The study below is therefore relevant to what we are discussing.
Effects of carbon dioxide exposure on early brain development in rats
- January 2014
- Biotechnic & Histochemistry 89(5)
The developing brain is vulnerable to environmental factors. We investigated the effects of air that contained 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% CO2 on the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala. We focused on the circuitry involved in the neurobiology of anxiety, spatial learning, memory, and on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is known to play a role in early brain development in rats. Spatial learning and memory were impaired by exposure to 0.3% CO2 air, while exposure to 0.1 and 0.3% CO2 air elevated blood corticosterone levels, intensified anxiety behavior, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity and MDA levels in hippocampus and PFC; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activity decreased in the PFC with no associated change in the hippocampus. IGF-1 levels were decreased in the blood, PFC and hippocampus by exposure to both 0.1 and 0.3% CO2. In addition, apoptosis was increased, while cell numbers were decreased in the CA1 regions of hippocampus and PFC after 0.3% CO2 air exposure in adolescent rats. A positive correlation was found between the blood IGF-1 level and apoptosis in the PFC. We found that chronic exposure to 0.3% CO2 air decreased IGF-1 levels in the serum, hippocampus and PFC, and increased oxidative stress. These findings were associated with increased anxiety behavior, and impaired memory and learning.
In Paula’s case she suffered no damage to her lungs but plenty of damage to her nerve/muscle/ bones of the neck and torso affecting her ability to move air in and out of her body and normal lungs. In other words, she had invisible damage to the motor act of breathing but none to the lungs. This affected her baseline frequency of breathing at rest and made it complicated to respond to heightened CO2 and /or abnormal ratio’s of PCO2/PO2 levels in the blood.
And , as the previous blogposts show….chronically heightened CO2 in the blood and/or abnormal ratio’s of PCO2/PO2 in the blood results in mood changes, stereotypic spontaneous motor activity changes that resemble behavioral attacks of manic depressive insanity.
And Paula is mostly fine and successful despite this which is super hopeful for others which such damage!