Paula’s normal breathing is abnormal

So no one notices. Paula does not even know. Paula thinks that she is breathing normally. She is breathing comfortably. Paula looks like she is breathing normally. She does not complain of any breathing problems, because she thinks she has none. Paula seems very healthy. It is unbelievable and inconceivable that she has very depressed… Continue reading Paula’s normal breathing is abnormal


Inflammation and Depression

Neuro Endocrinol Lett. . 2011;32(1):7-24. Depression's multiple comorbidities explained by (neuro)inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress pathways Michael Maes 1, Marta Kubera, Ewa Obuchowiczwa, Lisa Goehler, Joanna Brzeszcz PMID: 21407167 Abstract There is now evidence that depression, as characterized by melancholic symptoms, anxiety, and fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms, is the clinical expression of peripheral cell-mediated activation, inflammation and induction of oxidative… Continue reading Inflammation and Depression

Category Error of “mental” sources of illness

Illness is physical, always physical! Even if we do not yet understand much about what starts it and what maintains it and what can prevent or cure it. Illness is never "mental" . We talk of mental illness without investigating basic patterns of vital signs. No one knew that Paula's vital signs were abnormal because… Continue reading Category Error of “mental” sources of illness

Patterns of Altered Mental Status as Patterns of Systems Failure

There are many types of system failures when something as complex as the autonomic nervous system is concerned. Maintaining an adequate "internal milieu" or homeostasis is vital to being alive and is vital to the function of the brain and to the function of memory and the mind. Loss of baseline adult memory and of… Continue reading Patterns of Altered Mental Status as Patterns of Systems Failure

Human Consciousness is a product of Physiology and Metabolism.

that is, human consciousness [in my opinion] , is a product of how human's process air and food [ie energy] in the body, in the blood, and in the brain to provide energy for movement and for consciousness [to guide movement]. Human consciousness is a complex physical thing. A good metaphor to explain human consciousness… Continue reading Human Consciousness is a product of Physiology and Metabolism.

How Does the Brain Preserve our Sense of Self?

The brain somehow preserves our sense of self....but not when we exhibit altered mental status. Then the brain will direct its energy away from our sense of self, in order to stay alive; whether we have depression, mania, hypertension, ventilatory failure, chronic obstruction pulmonary disorder [not necessarily the same as ventilatory failure], heart failure, kidney… Continue reading How Does the Brain Preserve our Sense of Self?

Depression of memory and intellect with intact recognition

Paula's attacks of bipolar depression involves intact recognition of people and places yet with heightened anxiety accompanied by with autobiographic and personal memory loss and dulled intellect. The result is a loss of self despite normal recognition of one's environment. This loss of self is alarming and confusing and impossible to describe. Loss of intellect… Continue reading Depression of memory and intellect with intact recognition

Locomotor activity in Bipolar Attacks [ and in hypo-motor delirium and mania, a form of hyper motor delirium.

It has always fascinated me that disease states can produce stereotypic motor behavior. It has not escaped my notice that the "too little " motor activity of quiet delirium and the "too much" motor activity of mania and other forms of agitated motor subtypes of delirium are abnormal patterns of motor behavior. Disease states can… Continue reading Locomotor activity in Bipolar Attacks [ and in hypo-motor delirium and mania, a form of hyper motor delirium.

Paula’s breathing is chronically altered.

Neuroplasticity within the cardiorespiratory control network When environmental and/or physiologic conditions are chronically altered, as during chronic hypoxia or hypercapnia, neurophysiological systems are challenged to maintain homeostasis, requiring adjustments in integrated physiological control systems. The physiological adaptation process to chronically altered states is known as acclimatization, which has been well characterized for high altitude exposure/chronic… Continue reading Paula’s breathing is chronically altered.