Homeostasis is the key

to normal consciousness and normal emotional responses and to normal function of the brain and its higher functions.

It is that simple. And that complex. And “a patient’s vital signs (blood pressure, core body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation) are the first measurement indicating if there is a homeostatic imbalance. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559138/ PHYSIOLOGY;HOMEOSTASIS:

And looking at the vital signs and their pattern is the first and most important step to take in order to learn what part of homeostasis is failing.

Because a sustained range of altered mental and motor status [from depressed to manic] is a serious sign of disturbed physiology, most likely due to damage due to a difficult birth or due to a difficult recovery from illness [eg. tuberculosis, covid, measles, whooping cough, pneumonia, etc..] or anything which may interfere with the negative feedback system which keeps homeostasis stable.

My own opinion is that the particular pattern and range of altered mental and motor status changes seen in bipolar illness will be shown to be a result of damage to the neural and motor systems regulating gas exchange, even if the lungs are normal and healthy.

Abnormal gas exchange would easily explain states like ongoing euphoria, irritability, and distress. Hypoxia and Hypercapnia can produce these states.

Hypoxia and hypercapnia can occur when minute ventilation [minute ventilation is respiratory rate times tidal volume] is abnormal and insufficient. Respiratory rate and tidal volume can be abnormal when there is central or peripheral nerve injury affecting the skeletal muscles which must move the air we breathe in and out of the lungs. And lots of internal injuries can occur and cause abnormal patterns of breathing during the time we are awake and during the time we are asleep. And abnormal patterns of breathing [which we may or may not be aware of because breathing is mostly a complex motor coordinated by the autonomic nervous system] will cause abnormal gas exchange and will result in effects of internal poisoning, with mild to severe effects, depending on the amount of damage.

to be continued..

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