such as Psychomotor slowing or retardation in bipolar depression.
such as Psychomotor excitement [excessive movement and speed of response] in mania.
such as Motor speed of the ventilatory aspect of breathing.
Motor slowing or excitement seem to be connected to the motor aspects of breathing which seems to affect the function of the brain and the mind.
This is what Kraepelin found over 100 years ago.
This is also what we found in Paula’s case.
Kraepelin’s studies on abnormal motor aspects of breathing may be the key to bipolar attacks and researchers should investigate whether or not his findings can be replicated.
Respiratory rate is the most sensitive of the vital signs in detecting physiological deterioration. No wonder, since respiratory rate [along with tidal volume and thus minute ventilation] can tell you a lot about the person’s energy status and about their ability to react to rising respiratory acids. Respiratory acids [C02 and water] are produced by living cells and need to be exhaled in appropriate amounts-not too much and not too little. All this is involuntary, co-ordinated by the brain, which receives all internal information; mechanical [eg. pressure], chemical [eg. C02/02 of the body tissues] and physical [eg. heat, cold, etc..] . The brain and the body will try to compensate during illness or injuries which disturbs acid base balance in the blood, making adjustments, in order to preserve conditions necessary for life.
Behavior is included in the attempt to compensate for illness or injury and this is part of why we see stereotyped sickness behaviours during illness.
Stereotyped changes in behavior can also occur as a result of non progressive injuries as well. Cerebral palsy is a good example of this . Due to the injuries incurred at birth , the physical and motor aspects typical of this syndrome are easily recognized at all ages, especially if one is aware that these are present from early childhood.
The more abnormal the respiratory rate at rest, the harder it will be for the body and the brain to maintain a constant chemical environment necessary for life and necessary for normal brain and heart function. The cognitive functions may be the first to be affected because of the sensitivity of the brain and the mind to changes of pH and to the cerebral vasodilation of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The body is very very experienced in dealing with changing levels of PaC02 since it is part of what the cells produce. The ventilatory system of breathing is the first responder when acid base problems in the blood occur due to illness, accidental undernutrition [due to illness and lack of appetite] or injury to the respiratory muscles or control of breathing mechanisms. , . If the ventilatory system is broken and does not change easily, not even to react to gaseous conditions in the blood, the this is a major problem, since this is the first responder of the body.
So if the first responder [ventilatory motor ability and response] is disabled, every other system will have to work harder during health and will have to work together during illness, blood loss, or further injury.
I think that this is what happens during bipolar depression and mania.