Abnormal CO2 and [abnormal signalling of] GABA .

Tell me why no one measures the adequacy of the ventilatory system in neurological and psychiatric disease? Tell me why no one has made a connection between GABA dysregulation in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and possible abnormal breathing rate at rest, needing further investigation? Tell me why, again, no one knows that abnormal PaCO2 from a possible ventilatory disturbance [which does not involve the lungs] will explain the GABA receptor regulation?

And why don’t doctors regularly measure the vital “vital signs” in all their patients to check for effects of possible past injuries, especially if a patient becomes depressed, anxious, lethargic, anorexic [medical definition ; loss of appetite], manic, looks unwell, adopts a tripod position when sitting to help with breathing [even if the patient is unaware of why they adopt this position.]

Jumping to conclusions without checking Respiratory Rate, Heart rate, Blood Pressure and body temperature as is taught in medical school. why?

Physiology, GABA

Free Books & Documents


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that serves as the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord. It exerts its primary function in the synapse between neurons by binding to post-synaptic GABA receptors which modulate ion channels, hyperpolarizing the cell and inhibiting the transmission of an action potential. The clinical significance of GABA cannot be underestimated. Disorder in GABA signaling is implicated in a multitude of neurologic and psychiatric conditions. Modulation of GABA signaling is the basis of many pharmacologic treatments in neurology, psychiatry, and anesthesia. Benjamin E. Jewett 1Sandeep Sharma 2 In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan.2020 Aug 29. PMID: 30020683 Bookshelf ID: NBK513311 Copyright © 2021, StatPearls Publishing LLC.

GABA A and GABA B receptor dysregulation in superior frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder


Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Evidence from gene association and postmortem studies has identified abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system in both disorders. Abnormal GABAergic signaling and transmission could contribute to the symptomatology of these disorders, potentially through impaired gamma oscillations which normally occur during cognitive processing. In the current study, we examined the protein expression of 14 GABAA and two GABAB receptor subunits in the superior frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) identified significant group effects for protein levels for the α1, α6, β1, β3, δ, ɛ, and π GABAA receptor subunits and R1 and R2 GABAB receptor subunits. Follow-up t tests confirmed changes for these subunits in subjects with schizophrenia, subjects with bipolar disorder, or both groups. Alterations in stoichiometry of GABA receptor subunits could result in altered ligand binding, transmission, and pharmacology of GABA receptors in superior frontal cortex. Thus, impaired GABAergic transmission may negatively contribute to symptoms such as anxiety or panic as well as impaired learning and information processing, all of which are disrupted in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Taken together, these results provide additional evidence of GABAergic receptor abnormalities in these disorders. Synapse, . 2017 Jul;71(7). doi: 10.1002/syn.21973. Epub 2017 Apr 5., S Hossein Fatemi 1 2Timothy D Folsom 1Paul D Thuras , PMID: 28316115 DOI: 10.1002/syn.21973 Keywords: GABRɛ; GABRα1; GABRα6; bipolar disorder; schizophrenia.

Abnormal [too slow, too fast] respiratory rate may alter acid base regulation , especially during respiratory challenges or physical weakness due to injury or illness, and may explain the resulting GABA dysregulation as well as the possible attack of hypocapnea or hypercapnia [needs to be measured] leading to the mental confusion and bipolar illness or schizophrenia.

Tell me again why doctors ignore the vital signs before jumping to conclusions?

Tell me again why they cannot see the forest for the trees? This means that researchers and doctors …….”fail to grasp the main issue because of excessive attention to details”. Definitions from Oxford Languages

How hard is it to count respiratory rate at rest for one minute with a stopwatch? When one is supposed to be a doctor?

How hard is it to work in interdisciplinary teams to best understand the effects of an injury affecting the motor system moving air in and out of the body in correct ratio’s.


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