along with Serotonin Precursors and Benzodiazepines. This is the likely explanation for how SSRI’s have helped Paula over the past 20 years even though she still has baseline hypoventilation and inadequate minute ventilation. SSRI’s are probably effective treatments for depressions caused by physiologic conditions affecting control of pH and PCO2 and PO2 in the blood. [although they have side effects and take a long time to work].
Other treatments for hypercapnic conditions need to be explored in attacks of manic depressive insanity and n other conditions that impair mental and motor status.
Abstract : The aim of this review is to summarize evidence regarding rat emotional experiences during carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure. The studies reviewed show that CO2 exposure is aversive to rats, and that rats respond to CO2 exposure with active and passive defense behaviors. Plasma corticosterone and bradycardia increased in rats exposed to CO2. As with anxiogenic drugs, responses to CO2 are counteracted by the administration of anxiolytics, SRIs, and SSRI’s. Human studies reviewed indicate that, when inhaling CO2, humans experience feelings of anxiety fear and panic, and that administration of benzodiazepines, serotonin precursors, and SSRIs ameliorate these feelings. In vivo and in vitro rat studies reviewed show that brain regions, ion channels, and neurotransmitters involved in negative emotional responses are activated by hypercapnia and acidosis associated with CO2 exposure. On the basis of the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological evidence reviewed, we conclude that CO2 elicits negative emotions in rats. Individual differences in rat sensitivity to CO2 Lucía Améndola and Daniel. M. Weary Translational Psychiatry (2020)10:253 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00936-w
to be continued…..