To be continued…
.in addition to looking at the function of the brain and the mind and consciousness in general, we have looked at what we found out about Paula [a physiological puzzle] and what a major researcher found out in the 1900’s about thousands of his patients [and they had the same ventilatory system injury/defect as Paula.]
“The institutionalization of psychology at Heidelberg University advanced along a confused and confusing chain of events, thereby mirroring the tangled path of psychology toward being an independent discipline at German universities.
Heidelberg, founded in 1386 and the oldest university in present-day Germany, had offered lectures on psychology in the eighteenth and nineteenth century as much as any other German university. Like everywhere else, there were no specialized chairs of psychology. Teachers of philosophy and of other disciplines dealt with this subject. In the middle of the nineteenth century, Heidelberg unexpectedly came to play an outstanding role in the development of the new, experimental psychology inspired by the experimental methods of physics and physiology. Friedrich Arnold (1803–1890), professor of anatomy and physiology, set up a physiological laboratory where research in sensory psychology was done. One of his students (Gundlach 1986), his nephew Wilhelm Wundt…“
Encyclopedia of the History of Psychological theories Horst Gundlach https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-0463-8_245
Kraepelin believed the chief origin of psychiatric disease to be biological and genetic malfunction. His theories dominated psychiatry at the start of the 20th century and, despite the later psychodynamic influence of Sigmund Freud and his disciples, enjoyed a revival at century’s end. While he proclaimed his own high clinical standards of gathering information “by means of expert analysis of individual cases”, he also drew on reported observations of officials not trained in psychiatry. [because measuring vital signs, which he did] is basic first aid which any one can be trained to give!!!]
His textbooks do not contain detailed case histories of individuals but mosaic-like compilations of typical statements and behaviors from patients with a specific diagnosis. He has been described as “a scientific manager” and “a political operator”, who developed “a large-scale, clinically oriented, epidemiological research programme“.
will continue after lunch; one cannot work on an empty stomach….
Biophysics is a thriving discipline, as is evident by the breadth and depth of the science that is being presented at the Biophysical Society Annual Meetings and published in Biophysical Journal. Yet, biophysics also has an identity problem—due to the wide range of research topics that properly fall under the general rubric of biophysics—and biophysicists often find themselves challenged when asked to describe what the term actually represents.
Biophysics, as a distinct discipline, can be traced to a “gang of four”: Emil du Bois-Reymond, Ernst von Brücke, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Carl Ludwig—all four being physicians and the former three being students of the great German physiologist Johannes Müller, who, in 1847, got together to develop a research program based on the rejection of the, at the time, prevailing notion that living animals depend on special biological laws and vital forces would differ from those that operate in the domain of inorganic nature. In contrast, the group sought to explain biological function using the same laws as are applicable in the case of physical and chemical phenomena. As stated by Ludwig and quoted from Cranefield (1) “We four imagined that we should constitute physiology on a chemico-physical foundation, and give it equal scientific rank with Physics.” They coined the term “organic physics,” and du Bois-Reymond stated, in the introduction to his seminal work Untersuchungen über thierische Elektrizität (http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/library/data/lit28623/index_html?pn=1&ws=1.5), that (translation by Cranefield (1)) “it cannot fail that … physiology … will entirely dissolve into organic physics and chemistry.”