Fixed Stereotypic Breathing Patterns at Rest

Bipolar Attacks as consequence of non progressive injury causing Fixed Stereotypic Breathing Patterns limiting proper control of pH….and leading to difficulty recovering from illnesses/injuries/blood loss/infection,exposures, etc…

The coordinated physiological processes which maintain most of the steady states in the organism are so complex and so peculiar to living beings – involving, as they may, the brain and nerves, the heart, lungs, kidneys and spleen, all working cooperatively – that I have suggested a special designation for these states, homeostasis.
Cannon WB. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: W.W. Norton; (1932). p. 20–24

Cannon argued that a living organism was a system in dynamic state of constancy, with its constituent parts and processes being actively maintained in constant balance despite external fluctuations. This “balance” required a continuous exchange of matter and energy between the organism and the environment, and internal regulatory mechanisms to keep it in-check. Thus, Cannon’s homeostasis was not an equilibrium state, but a steady-state. This distinction is important because all living organisms are open systems that rely on a net flow of matter and energy with time whereas a strict equilibrium state, by definition, has no net flux (25). A stress, injury, or sickness was now seen in new light, and viewed as a challenge to the body’s dynamic steady-state. Thus a major goal of any drug therapy or treatment was to restore that balance.from Front Surg. 2015; 2: 43.
Published online 2015 Sep 3. doi: 10.3389/fsurg.2015.00043
Addressing the Global Burden of Trauma in Major Surgery
Geoffrey P. Dobson1,*

The steady state, homeostasis, consists in maintaining pH of the body tissues and of the blood at a safe level no matter what. This is what is necessary for life, for our lives.

Once we reach our maximum height in adulthood and the skeletal structure is mostly fixed in shape and dimension, then even small anatomical differences will affect what the body must do to maintain a steady state [a normal pH.] If the anatomical structure affects the musculoskeletal pump and the ability to move air in and out of the body, then pH will require extra energy to achieve.

Look around you. People come in different sizes and minor differences in skeletal structure upon reaching adulthood and in architecture it is said “function follows structure ” .  The idea is simple; the organization of a structure or object should be primarily based upon its intended function or purpose.

The human skeleton is the internal framework of the human body. It is composed of around 270 bones at birth – this total decreases to around 206 bones by adulthood after some bones get fused together.[1] The bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 21. The human skeleton can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

The human skeleton performs six major functions; support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of minerals, and endocrine regulation.

Skeletal divisions

Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (32–34 bones; the number of the vertebrae differs from human to human as the lower 2 parts, sacral and coccygeal bone may vary in length), a part of the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones).

The upright posture of humans is maintained by the axial skeleton, which transmits the weight from the head, the trunk, and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints. The bones of the spine are supported by many ligaments. The erector spinae muscles are also supporting and are useful for balance.

Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle or pelvis, and the lower limbs. Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of digestion, excretion and reproduction.

Functions

The skeleton serves six major functions: support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of minerals and endocrine regulation.

Support

The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the rib cagescostal cartilages, and intercostal muscles, the lungs would collapse.

Movement

The joints between bones allow movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system.

Protection

The skeleton helps to protect our many vital internal organs from being damaged.

Blood cell production

The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, the development of blood cells that takes place in the bone marrow. In children, haematopoiesis occurs primarily in the marrow of the long bones such as the femur and tibia. In adults, it occurs mainly in the pelvis, cranium, vertebrae, and sternum.[7]

Storage

The bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone. Hydroxyapatite is in turn composed of 39.8% of calcium, 41.4% of oxygen, 18.5% of phosphorus, and 0.2% of hydrogen by mass. Chondroitin sulfate is a sugar made up primarily of oxygen and carbon.

Endocrine regulation

Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat.[8] Thank you Wikipedia; Please support Wikipedia .

The skeleton changes through life. The fixed stereotypic breathing patterns limiting proper control of pH in the body and the blood are due to skeletal developmental effects encountered while growing. They can be seen. [if looked for]. One can examine the bones of the ribs, of the sternum and the spine. The effects on moving air in and out of the body can be observed. The rate of moving air in and out of the body per minute can be measured. Changes and or injuries to the musculo-skelatal pump will affect the pumps ability to manage the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. This is something that no one has taken seriously enough, probably because we all take our lifelong changing physical structures for granted.

In the case of bipolar attacks [or levels of chronic delirium], structural issues involving the skeleton, especially involving the respiratory pump, can limit the response to perturbations involving PCO2 [partial pressure of carbon dioxide] of the blood. The brain carefully monitors and reacts to the level of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues because our very lives depend on it..

Our minds depend on it also.

Perhaps the time has come….to review and expand our knowledge of biochemistry, in order to understand reversibel attacks of manic depressive insanity; the effects of imbalance of carbon dioxide on our brains and minds are reversible [in dose related fashion]- luky for us!

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